A remarkably complete sequence of stone industries, paralleling quite closely those of Europe, has been established for the Palestine-Syria region. Surface finds of Chellean implements are supplemented (in three caves in the Wady-elMughara, near Mt. Carmel) by the following stratigraphic series: Tayacian, Upper Acheulean; Levalloiseo-Mousterian (with skeletons of Neanderthaloid type), Aurignacian, and Natufian (a Mesolithic industry). Occasional sites with implements of one or another of these types have been reported from northern Arabia, Asia Minor, Armenia, Transcaucasia, Mesopotamia, and Persia.
Many implements of Chellean type, as well as Acheulean hand-axes and cleavers, have been reported in northern, central, and southern India. In the Punjab, De Terra found Acheulean hand-axes in a deposit contemporary with the second Himalayan glaciation or somewhat later. These were succeeded by a crude pebble industry (Soan industry) in strata contemporary with the third Himalayan glaciation. A few Upper Palaeolithic types, with some suggestions of Aurignacian, have also been found in central and northwestern India, as well as cave sites with rock paintings of uncertain age.
Skulls of Peking Man (Sinanthropus pekinensis), together with traces of fire and very shapeless stone tools, have been excavated in Middle Pleistocene deposits at Chou-kou-tien, southwest of Peiping. Implements of general Upper Palaeolithic type were found in the Ordos region, accompanied by remains of animals related to those associated with the last glacial advance in Europe. Other finds of a similar nature have been reported from Mongolia and Manchuria, but none to date from Japan.
Hearth sites, Palaeolithic implements and remains of extinct animals have been found in southwestern and central Siberia, especially in the basin of the Ob River and its tributaries, the valleys of the Upper Yenisei (Minusinsk region) and Angara Rivers and around Lake Baikal. Some of the implements resemble quite closely certain Mousterian, Aurignacian, and Magdalenian forms of western Europe. The deposits in which they occur and the fauna suggest that they belong to the Upper Palaeolithic period.
SOUTHEASTERN ASIA AND OCEANIA
The occurrence of a Palaeolithic culture in parts of this region has been reported, as evidenced by crude chipped stone tools unaccompanied by polished stone or pottery, and (in Tonkin) these actually occur below levels containing polished stone tools and pottery. Many of the familiar types of Palaeolithic tools are lacking, however, and recent investigation has revealed that these industries definitely date from the New Stone Age or at earliest from the Mesolithic. In Burma, however, a new Lower Palaeolithic culture (Anyathian), associated with extinct fauna, has been discovered in the Middle Pleistocene terraces of the Irrawaddy River. In Java an important series of remains of early Man has been found, including Homo modjokertensis, in a Lower Pleistocene horizon; the famous Pithecanthropus erectus, which is now shown by the associated fauna to be Middle Pleistocene in date; and Solo Man, belonging to the Upper Pleistocene. Surface finds of implements of Lower Palaeolithic type and points and scrapers of general Upper Palaeolithic appearance have also been reported from Java. No Palaeolithic remains have been found in Polynesia.