PERSIA AND RUSSIAN TURKESTAN. During the 4th millennium B.C. a highly developed Chalcolithic culture, comparable in some respects to that of Mesopotamia and characterized by fine painted pottery, flourished in many parts of this area, notably at Anau, Tepe Hissar, and Rayy in the north, at Tepe Giyan (Nihavand) in the west, and at Susa, Tepe Mussian, and Persepolis in the southwest.
This was followed by the Full Bronze Age in the 3d millennium B.C. In the latter part of the 2d millennium B.C. a new people, who buried their dead in megalithic graves, appeared in the mountain region of western Persia and the ancestors of the IndoEuropean Medes and Persians probably entered Persia at about the same time.