ARABIA. Practically nothing is known of this area before the time of the historical Minaean and Sabaean kingdoms of southern Arabia in the 1st millennium B.C.
ASIA MINOR. A prehistoric culture, of Chalcolithic type, flourished in Asia Minor at the beginning of the 3d millennium B.c., as shown by excavations at the famous site of Troy (Troy I, 3000-2400 B.C.; Troy II, 2400-2000 B.C.) and Alishar Huyuk (Chalcolithic Age, 3000-2800 B.c.; Copper Age, 2800-2300 B.C.; Early Bronze Age, 2300 B.C. on). The historical period begins with the founding of the first Hittite kingdom about 1900 B.C.