How to put up an object so that it won’t come down
On a hollow wall, attach a fixture to a stud whenever possible. Use a common nail or wood screw long enough to go through the fixture and wall and well into the stud. Drill a pilot hole for a screw. Secure a heavy item with a lag bolt. Or use a hanger bolt. One of its ends is threaded like a wood screw; the other like a machine bolt. Clamp locking-grip pliers to its center section to drive it into a pilot hole. Support a very heavy load, such as a kitchen cabinet, from a board secured to two or more studs with lag bolts or hanger bolts.
Use a sheet-metal screw to fasten to a metal stud. Drill through the wall up to the stud. Dent the metal with a punch. Then drill a small pilot hole.
Attaching to a wall between studs For a light load, use a plastic anchor. Drill a slightly smaller hole or punch one with a large nail. Tap in the anchor. Use a sheet-metal screw.
To hold more weight. use a hollow-wall anch or(Molly bolt). Drill a slightly larger hole and slip it in. Steady it with another screwdriver in a flange opening and tighten the screw. You’ll feel resistance when the anchor flares out in the wall. Remove the screw and mount the fixture.
You can also use a toggle bolt; it has a winged toggle that springs open inside the wall. Drill a hole large enough for the folded wings to pass through.
Put the bolt through the fixture, screw the toggle onto the end of the bolt, and slip it all the way into the hole. When the wings of the toggle spring open, tighten the bolt, pulling it toward you to press the open wings against the wall. A gravity toggle boltworks similarly; it has a toggle that swivels down.
Attaching to solid masonry walls
Cut nail enough to go through any plaster and securely into the masonry. To avoid splitting the wood, drill pilot holes in it. Drill pilot holes in brick, cement block, or concrete. Use a masonry bit and a variable-speed drill on slow speed; keep an even pressure on the bit. Drive the nails in squarely, using a lightweight sledge hammer.
Caution: Wear goggles when driving masonryand cut nails. These hard-steel nails snap easily and can chip a hammer’s edge, causing flying particles.
Use a plastic or fiber plug or a plastic anchor for a light load and a lead anchor for a heavier one. All expand tightly against a hole in the masonry when you drive in a screw. For the heaviest loads, use an expansion shield; a bolt expands it.
For all, drill a hole the diameter and length of the anchor, using a carbide-tipped bit. Clean out the hole before tapping in the anchor.
For moderately heavy loads, you can also use a wood plug cut from a 3/4-inch or larger dowel. Drill a slightly smaller hole. Grease or soap the plug and drive it in. Then drill a pilot hole in the plug for a wood screw.