Absorption of Gases. – In physics, the property which all liquids possess in greater or less degree of taking a certain quantity of gas into chemical combination with themselves. Heat is given off during this process of absorption, and, should it afterwards be desired to separate the gases, an equivalent amount of heat to that given off, must be applied to the liquid. This principle is the foundation of the ammonia absorption process of refrigeration as water at 32° F. can absorb over one thousand times its volume of ammonia gas.
Absorption Process. – A system of re frigeration, depending upon the remark able affinity of ammonia for water. Aqua ammonia is subjected to the heat of a steam-coil in a boiler or generator, the ammonia gas immediately dissociating from the water, and, after passing through vessels termed the analyzer and rectifier, designed to separate all watery particles, it is liquefied, still under pressure, in a surface condenser. From the liquifier it escapes through a regulating valve into the coils or manifolds of the refrigerator wherein is little pressure, and there again expands into a gas, taking the heat necessary for this change from the contents of the refrigerator, be it air, water or brine, thus chilling or freezing them. After performing its work in the refrigerator or ice tank, the ammonia gas is led into the absorber, where it is mingled again with the poor liquor from which it was originally evaporated, and finally pumped back into the generator to be used over again.
Absorption System of Refrigeration. – A system of refrigeration whose working principle may be stated as the alternate repulsion and absorption of ammonia gas by the alternate heating and cooling of ammonia water. The essential parts of the system are: a, generator; b, condenser; e, expansion coils; d, absorber; e, pump; f, exchanger or inter-cooler.
Abstract.-1 To withdraw ; to separate ; to take away. 2. In chemistry. to separate, as the more volatile or soluble parts of a sub stance, by distillation or other chemical processes.
Abundance. – An overflowing fullness ; ample sufficiency ; great plenty ; profusion ; copious supply ; superfluity ; wealth ; strictly applicable to quantity only, but sometimes used of number.
Abundance Ratio. – The ratio of the number of atoms of various isotopes in any mixture; it expresses the relative abundance of the various species.
Abutment. – A mass of masonry work supporting the end of an arch or bridge ; also the natural rock from which the bridge may spring.
Abutment Piece. – A block or plank transmitting the thrust of a shore or strut to a wall, etc., and distributing it over a large area. Equivalent to the waling planks used in timbering excavations.
Abutting Joint. – In carpentry, a joint in which the fibers of one piece are perpendicular to those of the other.
Acanthus. – In architecture, an ornament resembling the foliage or leaves of the acanthus, used as brackets on pillars in the Corinthian order of architecture.